What is TDS in Water? Why Should You Measure It?

Water is an essential component of life, and its quality plays a crucial role in ensuring our well-being. When discussing water quality, one term that frequently arises is Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). TDS refers to the concentration of various inorganic and organic substances that are present in water in a dissolved form. In this article, we’ll delve into the concept of TDS, its significance, measurement, sources, and implications for human health and the environment.

What Are Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)?

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances dissolved in water. These substances can include minerals, salts, metals, cations (positively charged ions), anions (negatively charged ions), and various other compounds. TDS is typically expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) or parts per million (ppm) and provides an indication of the overall quality of water. Common dissolved solids that may be present in water are:

  • Aluminum
  • Arsenic
  • Bicarbonates
  • Calcium
  • Chloride
  • Chlorine
  • Copper
  • Fluoride
  • Herbicides
  • Iron
  • Lead
  • Magnesium
  • Pesticides
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Sulfates
  • Zinc, etc

Sources of TDS in water

TDS in water originates from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources:

  • Natural Sources: Rainwater, rivers, and streams pick up minerals and salts as they flow over rocks and soil. Groundwater also carries dissolved substances from the geological formations it passes through.
  • Agricultural Runoff: Fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture can contribute to TDS levels in water bodies through runoff.
  • Industrial Discharges: Industrial processes can introduce various chemicals and minerals into water bodies, elevating TDS concentrations.
  • Domestic Wastewater: Discharge from households, which includes detergents, cleaning agents, and other chemicals, can contribute to TDS.
  • Saltwater Intrusion: Coastal areas may experience increased TDS due to the intrusion of saltwater into freshwater aquifers.

Measurement of TDS

TDS can be measured through various methods, including gravimetric analysis, conductivity measurement, and using specialized TDS meters (Fig. 1). Conductivity measurement is one of the most common techniques employed to estimate TDS. It works on the principle that water with a higher concentration of dissolved ions conducts electricity more effectively. Therefore, by measuring the conductivity of water, TDS can be estimated indirectly.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) are quantified using the unit milligrams per liter (mg/L), also referred to as parts per million (ppm). As outlined by the EPA’s secondary drinking water regulations, a TDS level of up to 500 ppm is the recommended maximum for safe drinking water. However, any reading surpassing 1000 ppm indicates an unsafe TDS concentration. If this measurement climbs beyond 2000 ppm, a filtration system might struggle to adequately purify the water from TDS.

The simplest method to gauge TDS in water involves employing a TDS meter. For instance, if a TDS meter displays 100 ppm, it signifies that out of one million particles, 100 are dissolved ions, while the remaining 999,900 constitute water molecules. This measurement suggests a low TDS level. Nevertheless, a TDS meter doesn’t disclose the specific types of dissolved substances, which is ultimately the most crucial detail for assessing water quality. Therefore, it’s advisable to utilize a home water test kit or a laboratory water analysis to precisely identify the composition of TDS in your water. Additionally, your water provider is obligated to perform water quality tests and maintain corresponding reports, which they should supply upon request.

Typical TDS Meter
Fig. 1: Typical TDS Meter

TDS Water Chart

Below is a TDS Water Chart that provides a general guideline for interpreting Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) levels in water and their potential implications for various uses:

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TDS Level (ppm)InterpretationPotential Implications
0 – 50Very LowExtremely pure water might lack essential minerals
50 – 150LowSuitable for most drinking and cooking purposes
150 – 300ModerateBalanced mineral content, potentially beneficial
300 – 500GoodGenerally safe for consumption and household use
500 – 1000HighMay affect the taste, hardness, and suitability of plants
1000 – 2000Very HighMay have a noticeable taste, require filtration
Above 2000Extremely HighUnsuitable for most purposes, filtration needed
Table 1: TDS Water Chart

Please note that these interpretations are general guidelines and can vary based on specific circumstances, local regulations, and individual preferences. TDS alone does not indicate the presence of specific contaminants, so it’s recommended to conduct further water testing to understand the exact composition of dissolved substances and potential health implications. Always refer to local water quality standards and guidelines for the most accurate assessment of water quality.

Why should you measure Total Dissolved Solids?

Measuring Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in water serves several important purposes, all of which contribute to ensuring water quality, safety, and suitability for various uses. Here are the key reasons why measuring TDS is essential:

Assessment of Water Quality:

TDS measurement provides valuable information about the overall composition of dissolved substances in water. It helps to assess the suitability of water for different purposes, such as drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, and aquatic ecosystems.

Indication of Contaminants:

Elevated TDS levels can indicate the presence of contaminants in water. While TDS itself does not specify the types of dissolved substances, a high TDS reading can prompt further testing to identify potential harmful contaminants such as heavy metals, nitrates, and other pollutants.

Health Considerations:

TDS levels can affect the taste, odor, and aesthetic qualities of water. Monitoring TDS can help ensure that drinking water remains palatable and free from any unusual or undesirable characteristics that might impact its acceptance by consumers.

Nutrient Content:

TDS includes essential minerals like calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Monitoring TDS levels can provide insights into the presence of these minerals, which are important for human health and nutrition. However, excessively high TDS can also indicate an overabundance of certain minerals, which may have health implications.

Plant Growth and Agriculture:

TDS can influence soil salinity and impact plant growth. Measuring TDS in irrigation water helps farmers and gardeners manage proper nutrient levels and prevent soil degradation due to excessive mineral content.

Industrial Processes:

In industries that rely on water, such as manufacturing and food processing, measuring TDS is crucial to maintain product quality and process efficiency. High TDS levels can lead to scaling, corrosion, and other operational issues.

Environmental Impact:

Elevated TDS levels in water bodies can harm aquatic ecosystems by disrupting water chemistry and affecting the organisms that inhabit these environments. Monitoring TDS helps assess potential impacts on aquatic life.

Water Treatment and Filtration:

TDS levels can impact the performance of water treatment processes, such as filtration and desalination. By measuring TDS, treatment plants can optimize their processes to ensure the effective removal of dissolved substances.

Regulatory Compliance:

Many regions have established water quality standards that include TDS limits for different types of water use. Measuring TDS helps water suppliers and regulatory agencies ensure compliance with these standards and guidelines.

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In essence, measuring Total Dissolved Solids is a fundamental aspect of water quality management. It provides insights into the chemical composition of water, helps identify potential issues, and informs decisions regarding water treatment, consumption, and environmental protection.

Total Dissolved Solids of Drinking Water

The range of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in drinking water can vary based on several factors, including the water source, geological characteristics of the region, treatment processes, and local regulations. However, in general, the recommended TDS range for safe and palatable drinking water is relatively low to moderate. Here are the typical ranges:

  • Low TDS: Drinking water with TDS levels below 300 ppm (mg/L) is generally considered low. This range is often preferred for its pleasant taste and minimal mineral content.
  • Moderate TDS: Drinking water with TDS levels ranging from 300 ppm to 500 ppm is still considered suitable for consumption and is often preferred by some individuals for its balanced mineral content.

It’s important to note that while these ranges are considered acceptable for most people, specific preferences can vary. Some individuals might find water with TDS levels above 500 ppm less palatable due to taste and odor concerns. Extremely high TDS levels, typically above 1000 ppm or 2000 ppm, may have noticeable taste and quality issues and might prompt consideration of water treatment methods.

However, it’s crucial to understand that TDS alone does not provide a comprehensive picture of water quality. It’s recommended to have a comprehensive water analysis that includes testing for specific contaminants, minerals, and other parameters to ensure the safety and suitability of drinking water. Additionally, local water quality guidelines and regulations should be followed to determine acceptable TDS levels in your area.

Implications for Human Health and the Environment

High Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) levels in water can have various effects on human health and the environment.

  • Drinking Water: While TDS itself is not a direct health concern, high TDS levels can impact the taste, odor, and overall palatability of water. Additionally, elevated TDS can indicate the presence of potentially harmful substances, such as excessive levels of certain minerals or contaminants.
  • Nutrient Intake: Some minerals present in TDS, like calcium and magnesium, are essential for human health and can contribute to daily nutrient intake.
  • Irrigation and Agriculture: Water with high TDS can affect plant growth and crop yields. Excessive TDS can lead to soil salinity and hinder plant water uptake.
  • Aquatic Ecosystems: Elevated TDS levels can disrupt aquatic ecosystems by affecting water chemistry and impacting the organisms that inhabit these environments.
  • Corrosion and Scaling: High TDS water can lead to scale buildup in pipes and appliances, reducing their efficiency and lifespan. It can also contribute to the corrosion of plumbing systems.

How to reduce TDS in water?

Reducing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in water is essential for maintaining water quality and ensuring its suitability for various uses. Here are several methods you can consider to lower TDS levels in water:

Reverse Osmosis (RO) Filtration:

Reverse osmosis is one of the most effective methods for reducing TDS. It involves passing water through a semipermeable membrane that selectively removes dissolved solids, minerals, and contaminants. RO systems are commonly used for residential and commercial water purification.


Distillation involves heating water to create steam and then condensing the steam back into liquid form. This process effectively removes dissolved solids, leaving behind impurities in the original container. Distillation can significantly reduce TDS levels.

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Ion Exchange:

Ion exchange systems use resin beads to exchange unwanted ions (such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium) with desirable ions. As water passes through the resin bed, it releases the unwanted ions and replaces them with less harmful ones.


Deionization systems use ion exchange to remove both cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negatively charged ions) from water. These systems produce very pure water with low TDS levels.


Electrodialysis involves applying an electric field across ion-selective membranes to separate ions from water. It’s a less common method but can effectively lower TDS levels.

Activated Carbon Filtration:

Activated carbon filters can remove certain dissolved organic compounds and improve water taste, but they are not as effective at reducing mineral-based TDS.

Boiling and Cooling:

Boiling water and allowing it to cool can cause some dissolved solids to precipitate out of the water, thus reducing TDS. However, this method may not be as effective for all types of dissolved solids.


Mixing high TDS water with lower TDS water can help reduce overall TDS levels. However, this method is more suitable for non-potable water or situations where the goal is to achieve a specific TDS level.

Proper Water Management:

Minimize water evaporation to prevent TDS concentration in reservoirs or ponds. Efficient irrigation practices can also help prevent salt buildup in the soil.

It’s important to note that the choice of method depends on the specific composition of TDS and the desired water quality. Before implementing any treatment method, it’s advisable to conduct a water analysis to determine the types of dissolved solids present and their concentrations. Additionally, consider consulting with water treatment professionals or experts to select the most appropriate solution for your specific needs.

Total Dissolved Solids in Distilled Water

Distilled water is essentially pure water that has undergone the process of distillation, which involves heating the water to create steam and then condensing the steam back into liquid form. Distillation effectively removes most dissolved solids, minerals, and contaminants from the water. As a result, the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) level in distilled water is extremely low, often approaching zero.

In practical terms, the TDS level in properly distilled water should be very close to 0 ppm (parts per million) or mg/L (milligrams per liter). This makes distilled water one of the purest forms of water available, as it contains minimal dissolved substances and minerals.

It’s important to note that while distilled water is suitable for many applications, including scientific experiments, medical procedures, and certain industrial processes, it may not be the best choice for long-term consumption. Since distilled water lacks minerals that are beneficial for health, prolonged consumption of exclusively distilled water may lead to mineral deficiencies. For drinking water, balanced mineral content is often preferred for both taste and nutritional reasons.


Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is a vital parameter used to assess water quality and understand the composition of dissolved substances in water. While TDS levels themselves may not always pose an immediate health risk, they can serve as an indicator of potential water quality issues. Monitoring TDS in various water sources, from drinking water to industrial discharges, is essential for maintaining the health of ecosystems and ensuring the well-being of both humans and the environment. As we continue to prioritize clean and safe water sources, understanding TDS and its implications is a critical step toward achieving this goal.

Anup Kumar Dey

I am Anup Kumar Dey, a Piping Engineer with more than 19 years of experience.

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